Steam Piping Don'ts
There are some common mistakes made while installing steam boilers. I would like to try to have these mistakes avoided in future installations. Below are some drawings which show the mistakes and an explanation of why the installation may work less efficient or create noises.
Let's start with a diagram of a properly piped steam boiler per manufacturer's specs.
Now we will look at a drawing showing proper piping in the style drawing all the common mistake drawings are done.
Burnham MegaSteam Boiler
Now let's look at some improper steam boiler piping
The old boiler was removed and it is located in the center of the home. The old system riser went up into the branch of a tee. The system mains went to the front and rear of the home.
The first mistake is you never want to send steam into the branch of a tee except in the boiler header. The steam goes up the 2" system riser and into the branch of the tee. The system goes left and right with 2" pipe. When the steam gets into the tee and starts moving two directions it can move freely as it is leaving one 2" pipe going to two 2" pipes due to less resistance to flow. The velocity gets too great in the 2" system riser and it starts sucking some water up the pipe with the steam. This produces wet steam. We do not want wet steam. Wet steam moves slower, travels less distance before turning back into condensate and causes the boiler to run more to produce more steam to satisfy the thermostat.
The proper way to pipe this application would be Fig 2.
Break or cut the tee out and thread both system mains in place. Add a second tee to the boiler header and pipe up to the two system mains. Allow at least 6" from the last tee in the header to the ell dropping into the equalizer.
Never Pipe the Header into A Tee at the End of The Header
The header should always end in an elbow. If piped as this drawing shows the steam and water will move through the header and slam into the back of the tee at the end of the header. Some of the moisture will get back into the steam and cause wet steam again causing noises, and higher fuel bills. Must leave 6" residentially or 12" commercially between the last system riser tee to the end of the header.
When the Boiler Has Multiple Boiler Risers
When installing steam boilers you never want to pipe system risers between boiler risers. The system risers are always after all boiler risers are piped into the header. You always want the steam and water to be moving the same direction in the header. If the boiler is piper as in the drawing on the left the steam and moving water will have a head on collision. The steam increases in velocity as it goes up the system riser. The steam will then move up the pipe and sucking some water with it. This will create wet steam and water noises. The same rules apply as in a single riser. No tee at the end of the header. Stay back a minimum of 6" residentially and 12" commercially.
Here is the proper way to pipe a single system riser and dual system risers off a header which has multiple boiler risers.
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